With regard to agriculture, the main problems between developing and developed countries are trade-distorting and high trade barriers. Under the WTO Agreement on Agriculture (ESA) (which entered into force on 1 January 2000), the WTO`s objective is to create a fair trading system that contributes to improving market access for agricultural products and helping to increase farmers` livelihoods and make agricultural trade more competitive. The main features (and contentious issues) of this agreement are market access, export competition and domestic support. As part of the decision, industrialized countries committed to immediately eliminate export subsidies, with the exception of a handful of agricultural products, and developing countries will do so by 2018. Developing countries will retain the flexibility to cover the marketing and transport costs of agricultural exports by the end of 2023, and poorer and food-importing countries would have additional time to reduce export subsidies. India will be a candidate for a trade facilitation agreement (TFA) in the services sector at the WTO, has huge potential and will contribute significantly to the country`s economy. That said, there was an agreement on preventing the appropriation of traditional knowledge of developing countries by Western companies For the next ministerial meeting (Seattle), industrialized countries tried to push a unilateral agreement on the Singapore issues down the throats of developing countries, but the latter successfully resisted. Meanwhile, accusations have been made against industrialized countries, ignoring the development challenges of developing and least developed countries. This led industrialized countries to agree on a “development agenda” and a new round of negotiations – the Doha Development Round, which began at the 4th Ministerial Meeting in Doha.
It is said that this was agreed by the industrialized countries pending the agreement of the contents of the “Singapore issues”. The 2001 Doha Round is called the “Development Round” because of the poor countries. However, rich countries have not done much to give to developing countries and have instead imprinted developing countries on greater market access. However, this cycle has focused on the theme of AoA and agriculture has overshadowed virtually all other things. The main elements of the Doha Round were agricultural and non-agricultural market access (NAMA). As far as agriculture is concerned, it has included substantial and effective reductions in total trade-distorting domestic aid (OTDS) by industrialized countries; self-designation of an appropriate number of special products (SPs); an operational and effective Specific Protection Mechanism (MSM); and tariff simplification and tariff limitation of industrialized countries` tariffs. The coverage of higher education in the GATS will promote the treatment of education as a commercial commodity. It is possible that any agreement will limit the Power of the Indian Government to provide subsidies and support to the sector. In addition, it is likely that it will influence India`s booking policy.
In addition, foreign universities will consume India`s meagre educational resources, which lacks quality teachers at less competitive national and public institutions. There is also concern that it will accelerate the flow of skilled workers from India, as foreign universities are likely to design courses as part of their parent institution. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international agreement managed by the World Trade Organization (WTO) that sets minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation applicable to nationals of other WTO members. . . .